Home > Store > Finance & Investing > Personal Finance

Strategic Risk Taking: A Framework for Risk Management

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

Strategic Risk Taking: A Framework for Risk Management

Book

  • This product currently is not for sale.
Not for Sale

About

Features

Groundbreaking book that redefines risk in business as potentially powerful strategically to help increase profits.

  • Get out of the "defensive crouch": learn which risks to avoid, which to mitigate, and which to actively exploit.
  • Master risk management techniques that can drive competitive advantage, increase firm value, and enhance growth and profitability.
  • By Dr. Aswath Damodaran, one of the field's top "gurus" -- known worldwide for his classic guides to corporate finance and valuation.
  • Description

    • Copyright 2008
    • Dimensions: 7 X 9-1/4
    • Pages: 408
    • Edition: 1st
    • Book
    • ISBN-10: 0-13-199048-9
    • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-199048-7

    Front Flap

    In business and investing, risk has traditionally been viewed negatively: investors and companies can lose money due to risk and therefore we typically penalize companies for taking risks. That’s why most books on risk management focus strictly on hedging or mitigating risk.

    But the enterprise’s relationship with risk should be far more nuanced. Great companies become great because they seek out and exploit intelligent risks, not because they avoid all risk. Strategic Risk Taking: A Framework for Risk Management is the first book to take this broader view, encompassing both risk hedging at one end of the spectrum and strategic risk taking on the other.

    World-renowned financial pioneer Aswath Damodaran–one of BusinessWeek’s top 12 business school professors–is singularly well positioned to take this strategic view. Here, Damodaran helps you separate good risk (opportunities) from bad risk (threats), showing how to utilize the former while protecting yourself against the latter. He introduces powerful financial tools for evaluating risk, and demonstrates how to draw on other disciplines to make these tools even more effective.

    Simply put, Damodaran has written the first book that helps you use risk to increase firm value, drive higher growth and returns, and create real competitive advantage.

    •   Risk: the history and the psychology

    The non-financial realities you must understand to successfully manage risk

    •   Risk assessment: from the basics to the cutting edge

    Risk Adjusted Value, probabilistic approaches, Value at Risk, and more

    •   Utilizing the power of real options

    Extending option pricing models to reflect the potential upside of risk exposure

    •   Risk management: the big picture

    Integrating traditional finance with corporate strategy–and using risk strategically

    Back Flap

    About the Author

    Aswath Damodaran, Professor of Finance at NYU’s Stern School of Business, has been profiled in BusinessWeek as one of the United States’ top twelve business school professors. His researchinterests include valuation, portfolio management, and applied corporate finance. He is the author of Damodaran on Valuation; Investment Valuation; The Dark Side of Valuation; Corporate Finance: Theory and Practice; Applied Corporate Finance; and most recently, Investment Fables.

    Damodaran has published in The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, The Journal of Finance, The Journal of Financial Economics, and The Review of Financial Studies.

    Back Cover

    Beyond Traditional Hedging: How to Use Risk Management Financial Techniques Strategically!

    •How to determine which risks to ignore, which to protect against, and which to actively exploit

    •By Aswath Damodaran, leading finance authority and one of BusinessWeek’s top 12 business school professors

    •For every corporate finance executive, manager, analyst, consultant, researcher, and student

    In recent years, risk management has been defined as merely eliminating or reducing

    risk exposure. Companies are learning today that is far too narrow and constraining a definition. Risk, exploited judiciously, is absolutely central to business success. In Strategic Risk Taking: A Framework for Risk Management, Aswath Damodaran covers both sides of the risk equation, offering a complete framework for maximizing profit by limiting some risks and exploiting others.

    Damodaran presents a thorough and insightful review of the state-of-the-art in risk measurement, hedging, and mitigation. He covers a broad spectrum of risk assessment tools, including risk adjusted value, scenario analysis, decision trees, VAR, and real options. But Damodaran goes far beyond other treatments of the subject, helping you decide when to deliberately increase exposure to certain risks, and clearly assess the potential dangers and payoffs of doing so.

    http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/

    Sample Content

    Excerpts

    A Very Short History of Risk

    For much of human history, risk and survival have gone hand in hand. Prehistoric humans lived short and brutal lives, as the search for food and shelter exposed them to physical danger from preying animals and poor weather. Even as more established communities developed in Sumeria, Babylon, and Greece, other risks (such as war and disease) continued to ravage humanity. For much of early history, though, physical risk and material reward went hand in hand. The risk-taking caveman ended up with food, and the risk-averse one starved to death.

    The advent of shipping created a new forum for risk taking for the adventurous. The Vikings embarked in superbly constructed ships from Scandinavia from Britain, Ireland, and even across the Atlantic to the Americas in search of new lands to plunder—the risk-return tradeoff of their age. The development of the shipping trades created fresh equations for risk and return, with the risk of ships sinking and being waylaid by pirates offset by the rewards from ships that made it back with cargo. It also allowed for the separation of physical from economic risk as wealthy traders bet their money while the poor risked their lives on the ships.

    The spice trade, which flourished as early as 350 BC but expanded and became the basis for empires in the middle of the last millennium, provides a good example. Merchants in India would load boats with pepper and cinnamon and send them to Persia, Arabia, and East Africa. From there, the cargo was transferred to camels and taken across the continent to Venice and Genoa, and then on to the rest of Europe. The Spanish and the Dutch, followed by the English, expanded the trade to the East Indies with an entirely seafaring route. Traders in London, Lisbon, and Amsterdam, with the backing of the crown, would invest in ships and supplies that would embark on the long journey. The hazards on the route were manifold, and it was common to lose half or more of the cargo (and those bearing the cargo) along the way, but the hefty prices that the spices commanded in their final destinations still made this a lucrative endeavor for both the owners of the ships and the sailors who survived. The spice trade was not unique. Economic activities until the industrial age often exposed those involved in it to physical risk with economic rewards. Thus, Spanish explorers set off for the New World, recognizing that they ran a real risk of death and injury but also that they would be richly rewarded if they succeeded. Young men from England set off for distant outposts of the empire in India and China, hoping to make their fortunes while exposing themselves to risk of death from disease and war.

    In the past couple of centuries, the advent of financial instruments and markets on the one hand, and the growth of the leisure business on the other, has allowed us to separate physical from economic risk. A person who buys options on technology stocks can be exposed to significant economic risk without potential for physical risk, whereas a person who spends the weekend bungee jumping is exposed to significant physical risk with no economic payoff. Although there remain significant physical risks in the universe, this book is about economic risks and their consequences.

    Table of Contents

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    A Roadmap for Understanding Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvii

    CHAPTERS 1–4

    The Economists’ View of Risk Aversion and the

    Behavioral Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    CHAPTER 1

    What Is Risk? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    A Very Short History of Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    Defining Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    Dealing with Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    Risk and Reward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

    Risk and Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

    Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    The Conventional View and Its Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

    A More Expansive View of Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    CHAPTER 2

    Why Do We Care About Risk? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    The Duality of Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    I Am Rich, But Am I Happy? Utility and Wealth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    The St. Petersburg Paradox and Expected Utility: The Bernoulli Contribution . . . . . . . . .12

    Mathematics Meets Economics: Von Neumann and Morgenstern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

    The Gambling Exception? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

    Small Versus Large Gambles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

    Measuring Risk Aversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    Certainty Equivalents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

    Risk Aversion Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

    viii ContentsOther Views on Risk Aversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

    Prospect Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

    Consequences of Views on Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    Investment Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

    Corporate Finance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

    Valuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    CHAPTER 3

    What Do We Think About Risk? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    General Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    Evidence on Risk Aversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    Experimental Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36

    Survey Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

    Pricing of Risky Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50

    Evidence from Racetracks, Gambling, and Game Shows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

    Propositions about Risk Aversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

    CHAPTER 4

    How Do We Measure Risk? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    Fate and Divine Providence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    Estimating Probabilities: The First Step to Quantifying Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

    Sampling, The Normal Distributions, and Updating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

    The Use of Data: Life Tables and Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

    The Insurance View of Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

    Financial Assets and the Advent of Statistical Risk Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

    The Markowitz Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

    Efficient Portfolios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73

    The Mean-Variance Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74

    Implications for Risk Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76

    Introducing the Riskless Asset–The Capital Asset Pricing Model

    (CAPM) Arrives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

    Mean Variance Challenged . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

    Fat Tails and Power-Law distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79

    Asymmetric Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81

    Jump Process Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83

    Data Power: Arbitrage Pricing and Multifactor Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

    Arbitrage Pricing Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84

    Multifactor and Proxy Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85

    The Evolution of Risk Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

    CHAPTERS 5–8

    Risk Assessment: Tools and Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

    CHAPTER 5

    Risk-Adjusted Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

    Discounted Cash Flow Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

    The DCF Value of an Asset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100

    Risk-Adjusted Discount Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101

    Certainty-Equivalent Cash Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106

    Hybrid Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111

    DCF Risk Adjustment: Pluses and Minuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116

    Post-Valuation Risk Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

    Rationale for Post-Valuation Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117

    Downside Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118

    Other Discounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125

    Upside Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126

    The Dangers of Post-Valuation Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127

    Relative Valuation Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

    Basis for Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128

    Risk Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129

    DCF Versus Relative Valuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130

    The Practice of Risk Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

    Fixed Discount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

    Firm-Specific Discount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

    Determinants of Illiquidity Discounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137

    Estimating Firm-Specific Illiquidity Discount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139

    Synthetic Bid-Ask Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

    Option-Based Discount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

    CHAPTER 6

    Probabilistic Approaches: Scenario Analysis, Decision

    Trees, and Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145

    Scenario Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

    Best Case/Worst Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146

    Multiple Scenario Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147

    Decision Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

    Steps in Decision Tree Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153

    An Example of a Decision Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156

    Use in Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160

    Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161

    Risk-Adjusted Value and Decision Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162

    Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

    Steps in Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164

    An Example of a Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168

    Use in Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173

    Simulations with Constraints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174

    Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176

    Risk-Adjusted Value and Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177

    An Overall Assessment of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . 179

    Comparing the Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179

    Complement or Replacement for Risk Adjusted Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180

    In Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

    Fitting the Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

    Is the Data Discrete or Continuous? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183

    How Symmetric Is the Data? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188

    Are There Upper or Lower Limits on Data Values? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194

    How Likely Are You to See Extreme Values of Data, Relative to the Middle Values? . . . . .195

    Tests for Fit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

    Tests of Normality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

    CHAPTER 7

    Value at Risk (VaR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201

    What Is VaR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

    A Short History of VaR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

    Measuring VaR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

    Variance-Covariance Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204

    Historical Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210

    Monte Carlo Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214

    Comparing Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217

    Limitations of VaR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

    VaR Can Be Wrong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218

    Narrow Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221

    Suboptimal Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222

    Extensions of VaR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

    VaR as a Risk Assessment Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

    CHAPTER 8

    Real Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231

    The Essence of Real Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

    Real Options, Risk-Adjusted Value, and Probabilistic Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

    Real Option Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

    The Option to Delay an Investment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235

    The Option to Expand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246

    The Option to Abandon an Investment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253

    Caveats on Real Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

    Real Options in a Risk Management Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

    Option Payoffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

    Determinants of Option Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

    Option Pricing Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

    The Binomial Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266

    The Black-Scholes Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270

    CHAPTERS 9—12

    Risk Management: The Big Picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

    CHAPTER 9

    Risk Management: The Big Picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279

    Risk and Value: The Conventional View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

    Discounted Cash Flow Valuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280

    Relative Valuation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285

    Expanding the Analysis of Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

    Discounted Cash Flow Valuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288

    Relative Valuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295

    Option Pricing Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298

    A Final Assessment of Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

    When Does Risk Hedging Pay Off? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302

    When Does Risk Management Pay Off? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303

    Risk Hedging Versus Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303

    Developing a Risk Management Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

    CHAPTER 10

    Risk Management: Profiling and Hedging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309

    Risk Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

    Step 1: List the Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310

    Step 2: Categorize the Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310

    Step 3: Measure Exposure to Each Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311

    Step 4: Analyze the Risks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318

    To Hedge or Not to Hedge? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

    The Costs of Hedging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319

    The Benefits of Hedging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320

    The Prevalence of Hedging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326

    Does Hedging Increase Value? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329

    Alternative Techniques for Hedging Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

    Investment Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331

    Financing Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .332

    Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333

    Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334

    Picking the Right Hedging Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

    CHAPTER 11

    Strategic Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341

    Why Exploit Risk? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

    Value and Risk Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342

    Evidence on Risk Taking and Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344

    How Do You Exploit Risk? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

    The Information Advantage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346

    The Speed Advantage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348

    The Experience/Knowledge Advantage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350

    The Resource Advantage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .352

    Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .353

    Building the Risk-Taking Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

    Corporate Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356

    Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358

    Reward/Punishment Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360

    Organization Size, Structure, and Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

    CHAPTER 12

    Risk Management: First Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .367

    1. Risk Is Everywhere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367

    2. Risk Is Threat and Opportunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

    3. We Are Ambivalent About Risks and Not Always Rational About the

    Way We Assess or Deal with Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

    4. Not All Risk Is Created Equal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

    5. Risk Can Be Measured . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

    6. Good Risk Measurement/Assessment Should Lead to Better Decisions . . . . . . . 373

    7. The Key to Good Risk Management Is Deciding Which Risks to Avoid,

    Which Ones to Pass Through, and Which to Exploit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

    8. The Payoff to Better Risk Management Is Higher Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

    9. Risk Management Is Part of Everyone’s Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

    10. Successful Risk-Taking Organizations Do Not Get There by Accident . . . . . . . 376

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378

    Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379

    Introduction

    Download the Introduction

    Updates

    Submit Errata

    More Information

    Unlimited one-month access with your purchase
    Free Safari Membership